Read Deepwater Group's Submission to the Environment Select Committee on Seamounts and Bottom Trawling.

1 September 2021

Deepwater Group submits that the management of New Zealand’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) environment by the Government and the deepwater seafood industry in a global context is not only comprehensive but is also recognised internationally as being second to none.

In June 2022, Parliament’s Environment Committee issued their report on the seamount petition. 

Submission's cover page
Click the image to read our submission to the Environment Select Committee.

All references from our Submission are listed below.


Alder, J. and D. Pauly, (Eds). 2008. A comparative assessment of biodiversity, fisheries and aquaculture in 53 countries’ exclusive economic zones. University of British Columbia Fisheries Centre Research Report 16(7), 94pp [click here]

Anderson, O., Tracey, D., Bostock, H., Williams, M. and Clark, M. (2014). Refined habitat suitability modelling for protected coral species in the New Zealand EEZ.  NIWA report for Marine Species and Threats, Department of Conservation. 46p. [click here]

Baird, S.J.; Mules, R. (2021). Extent of bottom contact by commercial trawling and dredging in New Zealand waters, 1989–90 to 2018–19. New Zealand Aquatic Environment and Biodiversity Report (in Press). [click here]

Baird, S.J.; Mules, R. (2019). Extent of bottom contact by New Zealand commercial trawl fishing for deepwater Tier 1 and Tier 2 target species determined using CatchMapper software, fishing years 2008‒18. New Zealand Aquatic Environment and Biodiversity Report No. 229. 106 p. [click here]

Baird, S.J.; Wood, B.A.; Bagley, N.W. (2011). Nature and extent of commercial fishing effort on or near the seafloor within the New Zealand 200 n. mile Exclusive Economic Zone, 1989–90 to 2004– 05. New Zealand Aquatic Environment and Biodiversity Report No. 73. 143 p. [click here]

Black, J. and Tilney, R. (2017). Monitoring New Zealand’s trawl footprint for deepwater fisheries: 1989-90 to 2012-13. New Zealand Aquatic Environment Biodiversity Report No. 176. [click here]

Black, J (2021) GNS Science. (19 August 2021) (Report to Deepwater Group pending)

Bowden, D.A.; Davey, N.; Fenwick, M.; George, S.; Macpherson, D.; Ray, C.; Stewart, R.; Christensen-Field, C.; Gibson, K.  (2017).  Quantifying Benthic Biodiversity: a factual voyage report from RV Tangaroa voyage TAN1701 to Chatham Rise, 4 January – 2 February 2017. New Zealand Aquatic Environment and Biodiversity Report No. 185. 98 p. [click here]

Bowden, D.A.; Anderson, O.A.; Escobar-Flores, P.; Rowden, A.A.; Clark, M.R. (2019). Quantifying benthic biodiversity: using seafloor image data to build single-taxon and community distribution models for Chatham Rise, New Zealand. New Zealand Aquatic Environment and Biodiversity Report No. 235. 65:1p. [click here]

Cairns, S.D. (1991). The Marine Fauna of New Zealand: Stylasteridae (Cnidaria: Hydroida). Memoir N.Z. Oceanographic. Institute. 98: 1-99. [click here]

Cairns, S. (1995). The marine fauna of New Zealand: Scleractinia (Cnidaria: Anthozoa). Memoir N.Z. Oceanographic Institute, 103: 1–210. [click here]

Clark, M.R., & Anderson, O.A. (2013). Information on the structure and function of “UTF” habitats. Revised presentation material for Deepwater Group Ltd. Orange Roughy MSC pre-assessment meeting 23 August 2013 Presentation to Deepwater Group. Referenced in Clark and Anderson (2015). [click here]

Clark, M.R., Anderson, O., Bowden, D., Chin, C., George, S., Glasgow, D., Guinotte, J., Hererra, S., Osterhage, D., Pallentin, A., Parker, S., Rowley, S., Stewart, R., Tracey, D., Wood, S. and Zeng, C. (2014). Voyage Report of a Survey of Deep-Sea Habitats of the Louisville Seamount Chain (Tan1402) Project report VMES133 (May 2014) 84p. [click here]

Clark, M., Anderson, O., Dunkin, M., Mackay, K., Notman, P., Roux, M-J and Tracey, D. (2015). Assessment of orange roughy and oreo trawl footprint in relation to protected coral species distribution. A report prepared by NIWA for Deepwater Group Ltd. 57p. [click here]

Clark M.R., Bowden D.A., Rowden A.A., and Stewart, R. (2019). Little Evidence of Benthic Community Resilience to Bottom Trawling on Seamounts After 15 Years. Frontiers in Marine Science 6:63. doi: 10.3389/fmars.2019.00063. [click here]

Clark, M.R., Mills, S., Leduc, D., Anderson, O.F. Rowden, A.A. (2019). Biodiversity of Benthic Protection Areas and Seamount Closure Areas: a description of available benthic invertebrate data, and a preliminary evaluation of the effectiveness of BPAs for biodiversity protection. New Zealand Aquatic Environment and Biodiversity Report No. 227. 270 p. [click here]

Clark, M. (2021). Update on Seamount Database for Deepwater Group Ltd. NIWA Client Report 2021034WN prepared for Deepwater Group Ltd. 6 p. [click here]

Consalvey, M., MacKay, K and Tracey, D. (2006). Information review for protected deep-sea coral species in the New Zealand region. NIWA Client Report: WLG2006-85, prepared for Department of Conservation, 53p. [click here]

Deepsea Conservation Coalition (2021). Save our deep sea corals, ban bottom trawling on seamounts. Evidence in support of a petition supporting a Petition to the Environment Select Committee. 34 p.

DOC (2005). Marine Protected Areas: Policy and implementation plan. Department of Conservation and Ministry of Fisheries. Wellington. December 2005. 25pp [click here

DOC (2008) Marine Protected Areas: Classification, Protection standard and implementation guidelines. Department of Conservation and Ministry of Fisheries. Wellington. Feb 2008. 53pp [click here]

DOC (2011) Coastal marine habitats and marine protected areas in the New Zealand Territorial Sea: a broad scale gap analysis. Department of Conservation and Ministry of Fisheries. August 2011), 50pp. [click here]

DOC (2019). New Zealand’s Sixth National Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Reporting period: 2014–2018. Department of Conservation, Wellington, New Zealand. 117p. [click here]

Dunn, M.R. & Devine, J.A. (2010). A holistic approach to determining stock structure of orange roughy on the Chatham Rise. New Zealand Fisheries Assessment Report 2010/17. 66p [click here]

Dunn, M.R. & Forman, J.S. (2011). Hypotheses of spatial stock structure in orange roughy Hoplostethus atlanticus inferred from diet, feeding, condition, and reproductive activity. PLoS ONE, 6(11): e26704. [click here]

Dudley, N. (Editor) (2008). Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. 86pp. WITH Stolton, S., P. Shadie and N. Dudley (2013). IUCN WCPA Best Practice Guidance on Recognising Protected Areas and Assigning Management Categories and Governance Types, Best Practice Protected Area Guidelines Series No. 21, Gland, Switzerland: IUCN. 143pp. [click here]

FNZ (2021) Aquatic Environment and Biodiversity Annual Review 2019–20. Compiled by the Aquatic Environment Team, Fisheries Science and Information, Fisheries New Zealand, Wellington New Zealand. 765p. [click here]

Helson, J. et al (2010) Private rights, public benefits: Industry-driven seabed protection. Marine Policy 34 (2010) 557-566 [click here]

Hiddink, J., Jennings, S., Sciberras, M., Szostek, C., Hughes, K., Ellis, N., Rijnsdorp, A., McConnaughey, R., Mazor, T., Hilborn, R., Collie, S., Pitcher, C., Amoroso, R., Parma, A., Suuronen, P., & Kaiser, M. (2017) Global analysis of depletion and recovery of seabed biota after bottom trawling disturbance. PNAS (August 1, 2017) vol. 114:31 [click here]

Hilborn, R. (2016) Marine Biodiversity needs more than protection. Nature 535(7611):224-226 [click here]

ICES. (2015b) Stock Annex. Orange Roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus) in I, II, IIIa, IV, V, VI, VII, VIII, IX, X, XII, XIV. March 2011 [online]. See pages 559-574 [click here

IPCC (2019) Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on the Ocean and Cryosphere in a Changing Climate [Pörtner, D.C. Roberts, V. Masson-Delmotte, P. Zhai, M. Tignor, E. Poloczanska, K. Mintenbeck, A. Alegría, M. Nicolai, A. Okem, J. Petzold, B. Rama, N.M. Weyer (eds)].19 August 2021 [click here]

IPCC (2021) Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Masson-Delmotte, V., P. Zhai, A. Pirani, S. L. Connors, C. Péan, S. Berger, N. Caud, Y. Chen, L. Goldfarb, M. I. Gomis, M. Huang, K. Leitzell, E. Lonnoy, J.B.R. Matthews, T. K. Maycock, T. Waterfield, O. Yelekçi, R. Yu and B. Zhou (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press. In Press. 9 August 2021. [click here]

Journeaux, P., Van Reenen, E., Manjala, T., Pike, S., Hanmore, I., & Millar, S. (2017) Analysis of Drivers and Barriers to Land Use Change. A Report prepared for the Ministry for Primary Industries by AgFirst (August 2017). 90p. [click here]

McConnaughey et al., (2019) Choosing best practices for managing impacts of trawl fishing on seabed habitats and biota. Fish and Fisheries. 2020: 21:319–337. [click here]

MFAT and DOC Conservation (2009). New Zealand’s Fourth National Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Reporting period: 2005–2009. Ministry for Foreign Affairs and Trade & Department of Conservation, Wellington, New Zealand. 129 p. [click here]

MFAT and DOC Conservation (2013) New Zealand’s Fifth National Report to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Reporting period: 2009–2013. Ministry for Foreign Affairs and Trade & Department of Conservation, Wellington, New Zealand. 68 p [click here]

MfE (2010) Legally Protected Conservation Land in New Zealand. Environmental Snapshot. Ministry for the Environment (April 2010). [click here]

MPI (2019) Map of New Zealand Commercial Trawl Grounds [click here]

New Zealand Environmental Protection Authority. (2015). Decision on Marine Consent Application: Chatham Rock Phosphate Limited. Application Ref: EEZ000006. 301 p. [click here]

Pew (2010) Deep: Talks and Thoughts Celebrating Diversity in New Zealand’s Untouched Kermadecs. Proceedings. Kermadec Symposium (Aug 2010). 98pp [click here]

Pitcher, R. Williams, A. and Georgeson, L. (2019). Progress with investigating uncertainty in the habitat suitability model predictions and VME indicator taxa thresholds underpinning CMM 03-2019. Paper for SPRFMO SC7, SC7-DW21_rev1. [click here]

Rieser, A., Watling, L., and Guinotte, J. (2013). Trawl fisheries, catch shares and the protection of benthic marine ecosystems: Has ownership generated incentives for seafloor stewardship? Marine Policy 40: 75–83. Pp 77-78. [click here]

Roberts, S. and Hirshfield, M. (2003). Deep Sea Corals: Out of sight but no longer out of mind. Oceana Report. Washington, DC. 20 p [click here]

Roux, M., Anderson, O., Tracey, D., MacKay, K., Notman, P., Wadhwa, S., & Dunkin, M. (2014) Summary information of Underwater Topographic Feature (UTF) habitat for orange roughy and associated trawl fisheries for orange roughy and oreo species. Part I. (MSC 2.4.1).Report Prepared for Deepwater Group Limited. December 2014.16p [click here

Savage, J.M., Hudson, M.D. and Osborne, P.E. (2020). The challenges of establishing marine protected areas in Southeast Asia. Chapter 18 (Abstract).  In: Humphreys, J. and Clark, R.W.E. (Eds) Marine Protected Areas. Science, Policy and Management. Pp. 343-359.

Smith, A., Shotton, R., & G, Patchell (2015) Competing Narratives: Getting Your VME Story Heard Above the Rest. New Zealand High Seas Fisheries Group Report to the 3rd Meeting, SPRFMP Scientific Committee. 38p [click here]

Snelder, T., Leathwick, J., Image, K., Weatherhead, M. and Wild, M. (2004). The New Zealand Marine Environment Classification. NIWA Client Report CHC2004-071 prepared for Ministry for the Environment. 86 p. [click here]

Snelder, T.H.; Leathwick, J.R.; Dey, K.L.; Rowden, A.A.; Weatherhead, M.A.; Fenwick, G.D.; Francis, M.P.; Gorman, R.M.; Grieve, J.M.; Hadfield, M.G.; Hewitt, J.E.; Richardson, K.M.; Uddstrom, M.J.; Zeldis, J.R. (2007). Development of an ecologic marine classification in the New Zealand region. Environmental Management 39(1): 12–29. Somerfield, P.J.; Clarke, K.R.; Olsgard, F. (2002). A comparison. [click here]

Spalding, M. D., Meliane, I. Milam, A. Fitzgerald, C. and Hale, L.Z. (2013). Protecting Marine Spaces: Global Targets and Changing Approaches. Ocean Yearbook Online Volume 27 Issue 1. 36 p. [click here]

Spear, B. and Cannon, J. (2012). Benthic Protection Areas: Best Practices and Recommendations. Sustainable Fisheries Partnership Report. April 2012. 36p [click here]

Staudigel, H., Anthony A.P. Koppers, J. William Lavelle, Tony J. Pitcher, and Timothy M. Shank (2010) Defining the Word “Seamount.” Oceanography (BOX 1) 23:1 – 20. [click here]

Tingley, G. & Dunn, M., Eds. (2018). Global review of orange roughy (Hoplostethus atlanticus), their fisheries, biology and management. FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Technical Paper No. 622. Rome. 128 pp. Licence: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO. [click here]

Toropova, C., Meliane, I., Laffoley, D., Matthews, E. and Spalding, M. (Eds.) (2010). Global Ocean Protection: Present Status and Future Possibilities. IUCN WCPA, Cambridge, UK, Agence des aires marines protégées, Gland, Switzerland, Washington, DC and New York, USA: UNEP-WCMC, Arlington, USA: TNC, Tokyo, Japan: UNU, New York, USA: WCS. 96pp [click here]

Tracey, D.; Baird, S.J.; Sanders, B.M. and Smith, M.H. (2011a). Distribution of protected corals in relation to fishing effort and assessment of accuracy of observer identification. NIWA Client Report No: WLG2011-33 prepared for Department of Conservation, Wellington. 74 p. [click here]

Tracey, D.M. & Hjorvarsdottir, F. (eds, comps) (2019). The State of Knowledge of Deep-Sea Corals in the New Zealand Region. NIWA Science and Technology Series Number 84. 140 p. [click here]

Tracey, D.M.; Rowden, A.A.; Mackay, K.A. and Compton, T. (2011b). Habitat-forming cold-water corals show affinity for seamounts in the New Zealand region. Marine Ecology Progress Series 430: 1–22. [click here]

UNEP-WCMC. (2021). Protected Area Profile for New Zealand from the World Database of Protected Areas.

Watling, L., Guinotte, J., Clark, M., & Smith, C. (2013) A proposed biogeography of the deep ocean floor. Progress in Oceanography 111:91–112 [click here]

Williams, A., Dowdney, J., Smith, A.D.M., Hobday, A.J., and Fuller, M. (2011). Evaluating impacts of fishing on benthic habitats: A risk assessment framework applied to Australian fisheries. Fisheries Research 112(3):154-167. [click here]

International Standardised Definitions: Seamounts and other UTFs

IHO-IOC (2019) B-6 Standardization of Undersea Feature Names (Edition 4.2.0 – October 2019) defines a Seamount at 2-12 [click here]

New Zealand Geographic Board (2016) Standard for undersea feature names: NZGBS 60000 (1 August 2016) [click here

USBGN (2005) Policies and Guidelines for the Standardization of Undersea Feature Names (Approved by the U.S. Board on Geographic Names Advisory Committee on Undersea Features 6 April 1999 with US BGN edits incorporated 19 July 2005 (Supersedes Guidelines approved 25 October 1978), p5. [click here]

The General Bathymetric Chart of the Oceans (GEBCO)